Quick Guide to WCAG 2.1
June 30 Working Draft
What's new and how to submit comments
NOTE: This is a quick summary of the June 30 Public Working Draft (FPWD) of WCAG 2.1.
How to comment?
Click a link to a Success Criterion in the table and ask yourself the following:
- Is it testable by expert human evaluation or automation?
- Is it implementable across technologies (or are exceptions sufficient)?
- Is it scalable across human languages?
- Could your organization implement 2.1? Why or why not?
- If not, do you have suggestions to improve it?
To comment, open a new issue on Github.
New Success Criteria in WCAG 2.1 June 30 Draft
Below are the proposed new Success Criteria summarized in plain language. Note: The 63 Success Criteria from WCAG 2.0 are grandfathered into WCAG 2.1. There may be consolidation in later drafts.
Plain language summary of requirements
|Who does it help and how?||PR||Issue||SC #||Lvl|
Increases zoom requirements to 400% without horizontal scroll. Usually by browser zoom. Basically requires Responsive design (or a few tricks to get zoom to work)
|Users with low vision who need to make things larger.||120||77||1.4.10||A|
|Graphic Contrast (Minimum)||
Extends 4.5:1 and 3:1 contrast minumums to important graphical information.
|Users with low vision and cognitive disabilities need help seeing or perceiving information in graphics.||100||9||1.4.11||AA|
|User Interface Component Contrast (Minimum)||
Extends contrast minimums to visible focus indicators and other interactive controls.
|Users with low vision and cognitive disabilities who need help seeing or perceiving interactive components.||128||10||1.4.12||AA|
Requires a mechanism to supress of postpone interrumptions and changes in content.
|Users with cognitive disabilities who need to work without interruptions.||98||47||2.2.6||AA|
Authentication does not rely on memorization.
For cognitive users who have trouble with memorization
|Character key shortcuts||Requires authors to not use single key shortcuts, or provide a way to turn them off or change them.Shortcut keys that have a combination of keys are much less likely to be triggered this way.||Users of speech technology. (e.g., If the site hijacks "p" key for shortcut, when the user dictates words such as "happy" the shortcut can be triggered.)||133||69||2.4.11||A|
Requires authors not to rely on a screen orientation.
|Users who have their device mounted, or who cannot change orientation can still use the site even though they have a fixed orientation.||142||70||2.6.1||AA|
Requires authors to use up-event triggering (which is standard) on interactive components.
|Users with dexterity disabilities who miss the target. It ensures the target is not triggered on touch down, but rather on touch up allowing them to move their finger away from the wrong target if they miss.||111||65||3.2.6||A|
|Change of content||
Requires authors to use aria-live or another way to notify AT users when something on the page changes.
|Users of AT who can't see changes or have trouble perceiving changes on a page, such as shopping cart updates. Their AT will announce a short phrase about new content added to the page.||112||2||3.2.7||AA|
|Accessible Name||Requires any visible label that is not the accessible name to be part of the string that makes up the accessible name.||An example, speech users say "click Go" if they see a button with the word "go" visually on it. If the button has an aria-label="submit" then that command will do nothing, and because the accessible name is not visible, the speech user wouldn't know what to say to press it. But if the word "go" was part of the string in the ACCNAME, (i.e, aria-label="Go, Submit" then saying "Click Go" would activate the button.||68||In next draft, has consensus||A|
Success Criteria under consideration not yet reached consensus
Plain language summary of requirements
|Who does it help and how?||PR||Issue||SC #||Lvl|
|Support Personalization (Minimum)||
Anticipates the release of a set of cognitive attributes (like wai-aria) with things like level of importance, etc. and ways to simplify UIs and reduce steps.
|Users with cognitive disabilities, low vision and others who need to personalize the interface, either to simplify it, or another change.||127||6||1.3.4||A|
Requires web page to reflow to a single column either by responsive design or a browser plugin (In developement).
|Users with tunnel vision, low vision and cognitive disabilities who are either zoomed into the page and need to read without horizontal scroll.||89||58||1.4.10||A|
|Minimize user errors||Requires authors to automatically correct errors when that is possible.||Users with cognitive and other disabilities who have trouble filling in forms and knowing where there was a mistake.||97||13||3.3.7||A|
|Undo||Requires authors to provide a way to undo actions and go to previous steps in a process without loss of data.||Users with cognitive and other disabilities who have a tendency to make errors on input.||N/A||38||3.3.8||A|
|Provide Support||Requires authors to provide help for complex information, long documents, numerical information or cardinal directions.||Users with cognitive and other disabilities who need help with complicated, complex, long documents, numerical information and directions such as North, South etc...||129||32||3.3.9||AA|
|Familiar Design (Minimum)||
Requires authors to provide help in standardized ways.
|Users with cognitive disabilities, who become confused when the interface changes between versions.||121||49||3.2.7||A|
Requires authors to use rules of simple language for important information.
|Users with cognitive disabilities, who need smaller chunks of information.||N/A||24||3.1.8||AA|
|Extra Symbols||Requires authors to put symbols before text strings representing critical services and related instructions OR use attributes (in development) that will automatically generate symbols.||Users with cognitive disabilities, who will better understand important instructions with an image, icon or symbol.||115||50||3.1.9||AA|
|Plain language (Miniumum)||
Requires content authors to make instructions, labels, navigation, error messages in simple tense, common words, basic rules of grammar, clear writing.
|Users with cognitive disabilities, who need simpler language. (Also helps users in their non-native language).||135||30||3.1.7||A|
|Pointer inputs with additional sensors||
Requires authors not to rely on pen pressure or tilt without an alternative for assistive technology or one finger, attained by X,Y coordinates on the screen.
|Users with dexterity disabilities who cannot use force touch, or pen pressure, tilt and twist. Helps ensure the user can perform the function with assistive technology or one finger.||144||66||2.5.2||A|
|Touch with Assistive Technology||Requires authors to use standard gestures, and not mess with custom gestures unless they don't interfere with the screen reader, or provide another way for the screen reader.||Users who are blind who use a screen reader that ships with the operating system, such as VoiceOver, Talkback, Narrator, particularly on mobile, will still be able to use the site when they turn on their Assistive Technology.||131||63||2.5.3||A|
|Pointer gestures||Requires authors to ensure the user can perform touch function with assistive technology or one finger.||Users with dexterity disabilities, those who are blind or have other disabilities that interfere with the use of timed gestures, multi finger, or complex gestures. They can use simple pointer events.||132||61||2.5.4||A|
|Device Sensors||Device sensors c. or provide an alternative for assistive technology or one finger.||Users who have their device mounted, or who cannot shake or tilt the device, can still use the site.||138||67||2.6.1||A|
Requires authors to use 44 x 44px targets for mobile for finger targets and 24 x 24px for mouse, and stylus targets.
|Users with dexterity disabilities or people without fingers, who have trouble touching a small target||N/A||60||2.5.1||A|
Requires that the page can be zoomed when printing, up to 200% the default printing size.
|Users with low vision who need the print output to be larger.||141||76||1.4.13||AA|
Requires author not to interfere with user style sheets and other CSS based client side interventions.
|Users with low vision or cognitive disabilities who need to override the font, line spacing, paragraph spacing, color scheme etc.||124||78||1.4.15||AA|
Requires authors not to have floating elements that cover other content when page is zoomed, unless it's a closable component. For instance, if a CSS box is fixed with a high z-index, it will obscure other content under the element.
Users with low vision who need to work without hover behavior obscuring content.
|Animation from interactions||
Requires authors not to use motion over 3 seconds as a result of a user clicking (or activating) something, or provide a way to turn it off. Addresses parallax scrolling and long CSS animations.
|Users with vestibular disabilities (motion sickness) and those with cognitive disabilities who need to use the site without being triggered.||96||18||2.2.7||A|
Requires authors to not use timeouts or save data to repopulate forms after timeout.
|Users with low vision and cognitive disabilities get extra time.||116||14||2.2.6||A|
Feel free to comment on this article on Twitter @davidmacd
David MacDonald is a 15 year WCAG veteran and co-editor of Using WAI ARIA in HTML5. Opinions are my own.
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